英语—2020.7.22-24—汉译英

学习 2周前 散逸
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2020.7.22-24随堂笔记 

1. 在城市周边修建很多的高楼大厦。

解码:

很多的高楼大厦+be + 修建-ed+在城市周边

Many high buildings were built around the city.

Be

I am

第三人称单数(he, she, it,所有名词单数)+ is

you,所有的名词复数are

was

were


2.
中国人民的物质生活得到了很大改善

解码:

中国人民改善了物质生活。

The Chinese people greatly improved material life.

物质生活+of 中国人民+be+ 极大地改善-ed

The material life of the Chinese people was greatly improved.

Chinese living level

中国生活水平

2. 这名来自农村的年轻人(自己的努力1)(在城市里2购买了一栋有花园的别墅。

解码:

这名年轻人来自农村购买一栋别墅有花园在城市里用自己的努力。

The young man from the countryside bought a villa with a garden in the city by his own efforts.


4.
在客厅沙发上小男孩微笑观看电视上有趣的卡通片。

解码:

小男孩沙发上在客厅里。

The boy is sitting in the sofa in the living room.次要

小男孩观看有趣的卡通片电视上微笑着。

The boy is watching the interesting cartoon on TV with smile.

 

The boy sitting in sofa in the living room  is watching the interesting cartoon on TV with smile. 主要

 


5.
这家工厂制造大量汽车销往海内外。

解码:

这家工厂制造大量的汽车。

The factory produces a large number of cars.

A large number of cars are produced by the factory.

大量的汽车+be+销往-ed 海内外。

A large number of cars are produced by the factory at home and abroad.

A large number of cars which are produced by the factory are sold at home and abroad.

A large number of cars the factory produces a large number of cars are sold at home and abroad.

汉译英总结:

1. 找动词,再找到动作的执行者和承受者,分处在动作的两侧:这就是主语+谓语+宾语

2. 若动作没有承受者,说明该动作为不及物动词,只在动作前写上执行者即可:这就是主语+谓语

3. 若动作有两个承受者,说明该动作为双宾动词,可以书写成两种英文形式:

Vt.+ sb. + sth

Vt. + sth + to/ for sb.

这就是主语+谓语+双宾

4. 若中文原句中没有明确的动作执行者时,就用被动语态:

承受者+be+ 动作的过去分词 + by + 执行者)

5. 动词开头,虽然没有写出动作执行者,但却能理解到隐藏的主语是“你或你们”,则以动词原形开头写成英文的祈使句。

6. 若中文原句中没有实意动词,则把人或事物与状态用系动词(be)联系在一起,这就是:主语+系动词+表语

这个题难。

The question is difficult (表语).

7. 若中文中动词的执行者,承受者都找到了,但是写成主语+谓语+宾语后,语义并没有完整,则需要在宾语后补充说明宾语,这就是宾语补足语

我觉得这个题

I find/ think/ feel/ believe the question difficult.

老师要求同学们完成课上的作业。

The teacher asked the students to finish the homework in the lesson firstly.

 

8.再找修饰执行者和承受者的定语,(执行者和承受者是名词):

若名词前的“的”是一个单词能翻译成英文的,则原地不动(形容词,量词可以多个单词,表示性质的名词,独立的doing,独立的过去分done

The interesting story

A large number of girls

girl students/ boy students/ women doctors/ men doctors

the living room

flying birds

falling leaves

fallen leaves

gone days

9 若中文中修饰名词的定语部分翻译成英语时需要超过一个单词,且分析中文中定语处有几个最小独立结构单位,把每一个独立结构单位单独括起来并编序号,再倒序放到被修饰的名词后,这就是后置定语;

10 若中文中名词前的定语部分是另一个名词,把该作定语的名词放到被修饰的名词后,在两者之间加of/in/about

二战的故事

The story of/about the second World War

中国人民的物质生活

Material life of the Chinese people

汤姆的书

The book of Tom

11“的”字句的特点:中文原句中有“的”,且由动词构成该“的”字:

a.每个动词都构造成一个基础简单句;

b.由“的”字内的动词所构成的分句就是次要句子;

c. 中文原句中“的”字后的名词就是被修饰的名词,就是两个小分句的重复词

d. 次要句子插入到主要句子的重复词后:

1)若重复词并排在一起,根据重复词是人:则把第二个重复词改为who;若重复词是物体:则把第二个重复词该thatwhich

2)若重复词没有并排在一起,则直接把第二个重复词删除即可。

3)若改好的句子为that+be/ which+be/ who+be

三者都可以省略。

 

 

1.                   我在医院看病。

I see a doctor in the hospital.

in hospital 住院

in the hospital 在医院

 

2.                   我把医生了。

解码:

1.医生开药。次

The doctor prescribed the medicine.

The medicine was prescribed by the doctor.

2.我吃了药。主要

I took the medicine.

I have taken the medicine.

 

I took the medicine the doctor prescribed the medicine.

I took the medicine that/ which was prescribed by the doctor.

 

I took the medicine prescribed by the doctor.

 

3.                   他去年发表文章主要研究国际大会中提到的课题。 

a.            He published the article last year.

b.            The article mainly studied the issue.

c.             The international conference mentioned the issue.===

The issue was mentioned in/by the international conference.

 

The article he published last year mainly studied the issue the international conference mentioned.

 

The article he published last year mainly studied the issue that was mentioned in/ by the international conference.

 

4. 申请贵公司在网上招聘岗位

解码:

我申请岗位。主要

I apply for the position.

贵公司招聘岗位在网上。次要

Your company wants/ recruits the position on the Internet.

The position is wanted/ recruited by your company on the Internet.

 

I apply for the position your company wants/ recruits on the Internet.

I apply for the position that is wanted/ recruited by your company on the Internet.

 

汉译英

Ø 一个简单句的句子主干结构:

¨    第一种主干:主语+谓语(vt.单宾及物动词)+宾语

1. 把水了。

You drink/ drank/ have drunk water.

 

2. 他把药了。

He takes the medicine.

主语:he,she,it,所有名词单数

谓语:动词要写成三单形式:动词原形后+s(表示一般现在时态)has done

 

3. 小明把作业完成了

Xiaoming finished his homework.

Xiaoming has finished his homework.

 

4. 同学们把教室打扫了。

Students cleaned/ have cleaned the classroom.

 

 

5. 他把车刷了。

He brushed/ has brushed the car.

 

¨    第二种主干:主语+系动词+表语(没有动词时)

1. 这杯茶很烫。

The cup of tea is very hot.

 

2. 这本书很有意思。

The book is very interesting

 

3. 今天阳光明媚。

Today is sunny.

Today, it is sunny.

 

4. 天很冷。

It is very cold.

 

5. 我迷茫了。

Confused adj. 迷茫的,感到迷茫的

I am confused.

 

confuse vt. 使某人感到迷茫,困惑

sb. be confused about sth 某人对某事感到迷茫

confused adj. 感到迷茫的(与人有关)

confusing adj. 令人迷茫的(与事物有关)

puzzle vt. 使某人不解,使某人困惑

 

¨    第三种主干:主语+谓语(不及物动词时)

1. 温度[在早上]下降

温度会下降在早上。

The temperature will drop/ fall/ go down/ decrease in the morning.

不及物动词:

动词后不能直接加承受者(名词)

动词后可以先加一个介词(of/in/on/to/with/about/ between/by)再加承受者

Go to school

(school n. 承受者)

Go home (home adv.)

agree to sth

agree with sb.

 

2. 太阳东西

解码:

太阳升在东方and落在西方。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

 

3. 我们等了很久。

We have waited for a long time.

 

4. 这本书卖得很好。

The book sells well.

 

¨    第四种主干:主语+谓语+双宾语(双宾及物动词时)

Vt. Sb. sth

Vt. Sth to sb.

charge n. 负责,掌管

take charge of …

be in charge of …

be in the charge of …

vt. 要价,索要

卖方+charge + 买方++ for + 商品

买方+ pay+ 卖方+ + for +商品

商品 + cost+ 买方+

+ spend + /时间+ on + sth

+ spend + / 时间+ (in) doing sth

It takes sb. some time to do sth.

 

1. 老师给我一本书。

The teacher gave me a book.

The teacher gave a book to me.

 

2. 这位老人讲述了一个故事。

解码:

 

The old man told a story to me.

The old man told me a story.

 

 

3. 小男孩妈妈一个有趣的问题。

The boy asked his mother an interesting question.

The boy asked an interesting question to his mother.

 

4. 爸爸了一个玩具。

My father bought a toy for me.

My father bought me a toy.

 

5. 小明来一瓶水。

Xiaoming brought a bottle of water to me.

Xiaoming brought me a bottle of water.

 

¨    第五种主干:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(make, find, leave, have, get

1. 同学们把书在书桌上

Students put/ keep the books on the desk.

 

2. 请将药保存在高的地方

Please keep the medicine at the high place

3. 定期锻炼可以保持你健康。/ 定期锻炼可以保持健康。

Keep you healthy

 

Regular exercise can keep you healthy

 

4. 老师要求同学们按时完成作业。

The teacher asked students to finish the homework on time

5. 大夫让他吃药。

The doctor let me take medicine.

Let/ make/ have sb. to do sth

某人做某事

 

版权声明:散逸 发表于 2020-07-26 9:56:22。
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